spring framework

I remember in the late 90s / early 2000 all the buzz in programming was about XML. All the ‘experts’ said you had to be using XML for data exchange. XML does have many benefits. But often when programming today, XML is looked as ‘old school’ or too restrictive. XML sure can be finicky to work with. Many developers when given a choice (including myself) will use JSON over XML. JSON is much more forgiving than XML is, which makes it simpler to work with.

While XML may be old school, it still can be good to use. Even when you’re doing JSON based Restful web services.

Restful Web Services in Spring

I’m not going to cover building Restful Web Services in Spring in this post. That’s a future topic. But when you’re using Spring MVC to develop Restful Web Services, you can set up a lot of flexibility. I typically design my web services so the client can use JSON or XML. The standards support this, and it’s fairly easy to do.

Many of the examples you will see on the internet will start with using JAXB annotated Java POJOs. This works, but I also feel this is a mistake. The ‘contract’ for your web services is now a Java class. Which may work for you, but it’s not portable. What if one of your clients is writing in PHP??? A JAXB annotated Java class is useless to them.

XML Schema

XML Schema is a specification for describing XML documents. Think of it as strong typing for an XML document. You can specify the properties, if they can be null, their data types, if they can be a list, etc. The capabilities of XML schema is very robust.

A really cool feature of JAXB is you can generate JAXB annotated Java POJOs from a XML Schema document. And when you do this, you now have a portable contract for the data types of your web services. Your ‘contract’ is no longer tied to the Java programming language. You could give the XML schema to someone building a client for your web service in another programming language, like C# maybe, and they can use the XML Schema to generate code for the client.

XML Schema is a widely accepted standard that is not tied to a specific programming language. By using XML schema and providing it to your clients you make your Restful Web Service easier to consume. Your clients have a standardised specification of exactly what they need to send.

JAXB Generated Classes for Restful Web Services

In this post, I’m going to show you how to setup a Maven project to create a Jar file of Java classes generated by JAXB from an XML Schema.

Generating a Maven Project in IntelliJ

For the purposes of this example, I’m going to use IntelliJ to create a Maven project. In real use, you’ll want to set this up as either a independent Maven project, or a Maven module. This will allow the JAXB generated classes to be bundled in a JAR file and reused in other projects or modules.

1. Create a new project in IntelliJ.

Create Maven Project in IntelliJ

2. Set the GroupId and ArtifactId in the New Project dialog of IntelliJ.

New Project Dialog in IntelliJ

3. Select where to store the project on your drive.

path location in IntelliJ

4. IntelliJ will as your to verify the creation of a new directory. Click OK.

Directory Does Not Exist dialog in IntelliJ

5. Depending on your settings in IntelliJ, you may be asked to import changes. I often keep this feature off when dealing with large complex Maven projects due to performance reasons. If you see this dialog, click on ‘Import Changes’.

import Maven changes into IntelliJ

6. At this point you’ve created a new Maven project in IntelliJ. You can see the Maven standard directory structure has been created.

Maven project in IntelliJ


Create the XML Schema

The first file we will create is the XML Schema we will be using. Let’s say we’re creating a Web Service to add a product, and need a create product command object.

In our XML Schema we are creating a Product class, and the a CreateProductRequest class too. This is going to extend the ProductClass and add a field for the API key. This file is placed in the folder /main/resources. This is the default location for XML Schema files.


Configure Maven

Creating the project in IntelliJ gave us a very basic Maven POM file. Here is the Maven POM created for us.

Maven Dependencies

We need to add three dependencies to our Maven POM. This first is the JAXB API, the second is the JAXB implementation, and finally the third is for the Maven JAXB plugin.

Maven JAXB Plugin

Next we need to configure the JAXB plugin for Maven to the Maven POM.

Complete Maven POM

Here is the final Maven POM.

Building Our JAXB Maven Project

Running the Maven Package Goal

IntelliJ makes working with Maven very easy. On the right side of the IDE, you’ll see a button for ‘Maven Projects’, clicking that will open the ‘Maven Projects’ dialog. To build our project, under Lifecycle, double click on the ‘package’ goal.

Maven Projects in IntelliJ

You should see Maven run and build successfully.

Maven Build Artifacts

Maven will build into the ‘Target’ directory. You can see the Java classes generated in IntelliJ.

JAXB Maven Artifacts

JAXB Generated Classes

We expected two classes generated from the XML Schema we defined.



Notice how this class actually extends the Product class.


This is just a very simple example of generating classing from an XML Schema using JAXB and Maven. In this post, I’ve shown you step by step how to use an XML Schema and JAXB to generate Java classes. The generated classes are bundled into a JAR file, which is portable and can be shared with other Java projects.

As a Spring Source consultant, I was at a large company which built a number of Restful APIs. The team building the APIs did not use JAXB to generate classes from an XML Schema. Rather they built the JAXB classes by hand and could not offer their clients an XML Schema. As a consumer of their APIs, it was a time consuming process to configure and troubleshoot my data types.

I’ve also done consulting in organizations where the team did use XML Schemas for building their APIs. Having the XML Schema made writing the client code a snap.



You can find the documentation for the JAXB project here.

JAXB Maven Plugin

I used the default settings for the JAXB Maven plugin. Additional options are available. Documentation for the JAXB Maven plugin is here.

Project Source Code

The source code used in this tutorial is available on Github here.


spring framework
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Unit testing is the first level of testing software where you write test code that executes a specific functionality in the code to be tested. In most cases, you as a programmer are responsible to deliver unit tested code. The objective is to check if the unit of the software, for example a public method of a class under test, behaves as expected and/or returns the expected data. Unit tests are not done on the production system but as isolated units. If the unit under test have external dependencies, such as an external data source or a Web service, the dependencies are replaced with a test implementation or a mock object created using a test framework. Unit testing is not the only type and it alone cannot handle all testing aspects. Other types of testing, such as integration and functional testing have their own roles in testing software.

In this series of posts we will focus on unit testing with JUnit – one of the most popular framework to test Java code. In this post, we will start by creating and executing a basic unit test, and then in further posts move to specific unit testing aspects.

The core JUnit framework comes in a single JAR file, which you can download, point the classpath to it, and then create and run tests. But in this post, we will learn how to perform unit testing in the real programmer’s way. We will start with Maven, and then move to IntelliJ.

Unit Testing with Maven

You’ve likely heard Maven being referred as a build tool. But, in addition to its capability to build deployable artifacts from source code, Maven provides a number of features for managing the software development life cycle. Unit testing is one such feature, which is incorporated as a test phase in the Maven build lifecycle.

Without going into Maven in depth, let’s start our first JUnit test with Maven.

    1. Download and install Maven if you haven’t done yet.
    2. Open up a command prompt (Windows) or a terminal (*uix or Mac), browse to a working directory to setup the project, and execute the following command.

The preceding archetype:generate command uses the maven-archetype-quickstart template to create a basic Maven project containing a pom.xml file, a App.java class, and a AppTest.java test class in the following directory structure.

In the directory structure above, the pom.xml file, also known as the Maven configuration file is the heart of a Maven project. It is where you define your project configurations – specifically the dependencies of your project. For example, as our project depends on JUnit, we need to declare it as a dependency in the pom.xml file. Although a JUnit dependency will already be present by default, we will update it to point to the latest JUnit version. This is how our final pom.xml file will look like.


Now that we have set up a basic Java class, a test class, and the pom.xml configuration, we can run a unit test.

    1. Execute the mvn test command from the working directory.

This command will run the default AppTest class that Maven generated for us with the following output.

We have executed a JUnit test using Maven. This test passed, but hardly provides any value yet. We will next move to using the IntelliJ IDE to write and execute a more comprehensive test.

Unit Testing in IntelliJ

Using IntelliJ, you can easily create, run, and debug unit tests. Among several other unit testing frameworks, IntelliJ provides built-in support for JUnit. In IntelliJ, you can create a JUnit test class with a click and navigate quickly between test classes and their corresponding target classes to debug test errors. A very useful unit testing feature in IntelliJ is code coverage. With this feature, you can view the exact percentage of methods and even lines of code covered by unit tests in your project.

Let’s import our existing Maven project to IntelliJ and do some unit testing.

Import Maven Project to IntelliJ

If you don’t have IntelliJ installed, download and install the free Community Edition or the 30-day trial of Ultimate Edition from the official website. Once you are done, perform the following steps:

    1. Open IntelliJ.
    2. On the Welcome to IntelliJ IDEA window, click Import Project.

Click Import project

    1. In the Select File or Directory to Import dialog box, browse to the working directory of the Maven project and select the pom.xml file.

Select pom.xml

    1. Click the OK button.
    2. In the Import Project from Maven dialog box that appears, select the Import Maven projects automatically checkbox to synchronize changes between the Maven and InteliiJ projects each time the pom.xml file changes.

Select the Import Maven projects automatically checkbox

    1. Click the Next button through a few more dialog boxes, accepting the default settings, and finally click Finish. The Project window of IntelliJ displays the project structure.

Thct Structure in the IntelliJ Project Windowe Proje

  1. Double click App in the Project window to open it in the code editor.
  2. Replace the default code of the App class with this code.


In the code above we wrote a concatAndConvertString() method in the App class that accepts two String parameters. The method first concatenates the strings and converts the result to uppercase before returning it.

We will next add a test class to test the concatAndConvertString() method.

Add a Test Class

Let’s go through the steps to add a test class in IntelliJ from scratch.

    1. Delete the default AppTest class from the Project window.
    2. In the Project window create a directory with the name test under main, We will use the test directory to keep the test code separated from the application code.
    3. Right-click test and select Mark Directory As→Test Sources Root.

select Mark Directory As, and then Test Sources Root.

    1. In the code editor where the App class is open, press Shift+F10 and select Create New Test.

Select Create New Test

    1. In the Create Test dialog box that appears, select the jUnit4 radio button and the check box corresponding to the concatAndConvertString() method that we will test.

Select jUnit4 radio button and the method that we will test

  1. Click the OK button. JUnit creates the AppTest class with a testConcatAndConvertString() method decorated with the @Test annotation. This annotation tells JUnit to run the method as a test case. In the test method, we will write the code to test the concatAndConvertString() method of App.


In Line 12 of the example above, we called the assertEquals() method, which is one of the several JUnit assertion methods. This overloaded method checks whether two String objects are equal. If they are not, the method throws an AssertionError. In our example, we called the assertEquals() method by passing the expected string value (HELLOWORLD) as the first parameter and the actual value that the concatAndConvertString() method returns as the second parameter.

Run the Unit Test

To run the test, select Run AppTest from the Run menu of IntelliJ or press Shift+F10. The Run window displays the test result. A green highlight box indicates that the test completed without any failure.

Green highlight box indicating a passed test

To know how test failures are reported, change the value of the expectedValue variable to HelloWorld and press Shift+F10. The Run dialog box displays a red progress bar to indicate the test failure along with a comparison failure message.

Red Progress Bar Indicating a Failed Test

Revert the the expectedValue variable to its original value before you close IntelliJ.


At this point, if you are thinking Why not just use System.out.println() for unit testing? Then you are thinking wrong. Inserting System.out.println() for debugging into code is undesirable because it requires manually scanning the output, every time the program is run, to ensure that the code is doing what’s expected. Imagine doing this in an enterprise application having hundreds and thousands of lines of code. On the other hand, unit tests examine the code’s behavior on runtime from the client’s point of view. This provides better insight on what might happen when the software is released.

Whenever you are writing code, you should be writing unit tests too. Writing unit tests will catch programming errors and improve the quality of your code. Many professional developers advocate doing Test Driven Development (TDD), where you write your unit tests before you write the application code.

Either way if you write your unit tests before or after you write the application code, the unit tests become a valuable asset for instrumenting your code. As the code base grows, you can refactor things as needed, and have more confidence that your changes will not have unintended consequences (ie where you change one thing, and accidently break something else).

In part 2 of my tutorial series on unit testing with JUnit I’ll take a deeper look at JUnit Assertions, JUnit Annotations, and JUnit Test Suites.

Unit Testing with the Spring Framework

Testing is an integral part of Enterprise Application Development process with the Spring Framework. The architecture of the Spring Framework lends itself to modular code and easier unit testing.  Spring provides testing support through the TestContext Framework that abstracts the underlying testing framework, such as JUnit and TestNG. You can use it by setting SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class as the value for the @RunWith annotation. This tells Spring to use the test runner of TestContext instead of JUnit’s built in test runner. I’ve written a more in depth post about testing Spring applications with JUnit here.

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This is a simple hello world example using Spring Framework 4. We will use Spring Boot and Spring Initializer to get things kicked off easily.

Video Tutorial

Follow this quick video tutorial to get a Spring Boot starter project.

Step by Step Instructions

Get Starter Project from Spring Initializer

Step One

  • Go to the Spring Initializer website via this link.
  • For our hello world example, all the defaults are fine.
  • Click the Generate Button.

Generate Project Button

This will download a zip file containing a starter project to your hard drive.

Import Project Into IntelliJ

Step Two

Unzip the contents of the downloaded file to a working directory.

You now have a basic Spring project using Maven. The downloaded file contains the default Maven project structure. At the root of the directory is a pre-configured POM that contains a Spring Boot dependency. The Spring Boot dependency has child dependencies for Spring Core modules.

Step Three

Import project into your IDE. Our favorite IDE is IntelliJ.

  • From IntelliJ go to File / New / Project from Existing Sources.
  • Locate the file pom.xml in the root folder of the downloaded project and click OK.
  • Click next from the Import from Maven screen.

Import Project from Maven

  • Select Maven Project, Click Next.

Import Project from Maven


  • Select the SDK to use. (You should select Java 1.8 or higher)

Import Project from Maven


  • Select name for the project. (Demo is fine for this)

Import project from Maven

  • At this point the Maven project has been imported into the IntelliJ IDE.



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Update Code

Step Four

Create a HelloWorld class which will print ‘Hello World’ to the console in Java.

Step Five

Update the main method to get an instance of the HelloWorld bean from the Spring Context.

Run Project – Say Hello

Step Six

Run the main method.

. ____ _ __ _ _
/\\ / ___'_ __ _ _(_)_ __ __ _ \ \ \ \
( ( )\___ | '_ | '_| | '_ \/ _` | \ \ \ \
\\/ ___)| |_)| | | | | || (_| | ) ) ) )
' |____| .__|_| |_|_| |_\__, | / / / /
:: Spring Boot :: (v1.2.2.RELEASE)
2015-03-11 10:25:18.981 INFO 7394 --- [ main] demo.DemoApplication : Starting DemoApplication on Johns-MacBook-Pro.local with PID 7394 (/Users/jt/src/springframework.guru/blog/hello-world-spring-4/demo/target/classes started by jt in /Users/jt/src/springframework.guru/blog/hello-world-spring-4/demo)
2015-03-11 10:25:19.050 INFO 7394 --- [ main] s.c.a.AnnotationConfigApplicationContext : Refreshing org.springframework.context.annotation.AnnotationConfigApplicatio[email protected]: startup date [Wed Mar 11 10:25:19 EDT 2015]; root of context hierarchy
2015-03-11 10:25:20.143 INFO 7394 --- [ main] o.s.j.e.a.AnnotationMBeanExporter : Registering beans for JMX exposure on startup
2015-03-11 10:25:20.159 INFO 7394 --- [ main] demo.DemoApplication : Started DemoApplication in 1.517 seconds (JVM running for 2.092)
Hello World
2015-03-11 10:25:20.162 INFO 7394 --- [ Thread-1] s.c.a.AnnotationConfigApplicationContext : Closing org.springframework.context.annotation.AnnotationConfigApplicatio[email protected]: startup date [Wed Mar 11 10:25:19 EDT 2015]; root of context hierarchy
2015-03-11 10:25:20.164 INFO 7394 --- [ Thread-1] o.s.j.e.a.AnnotationMBeanExporter : Unregistering JMX-exposed beans on shutdown
Process finished with exit code 0

Get The Code

Source Code

The source code for this post is available on github. You can download it here.

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Spring Boot is a recent addition to the Spring Framework. It makes starting a Spring based project crazy easy. Before the days of Spring Boot, you as the developer were responsible for creating a project and managing the dependencies. Now you can use the Spring Initializer to download a ready made project with common dependencies cooking into to Maven or Gradle. Spring Boot and Spring Initializer makes your life as a developer easier.

Here is a simple demo of starting a Spring project using Spring Boot.