Configuring Spring Boot for MongoDB

Configuring Spring Boot for MongoDB


Spring Data project provides integration for most of the popular databases around. I have already written few posts to configure Spring Boot to use Oracle, MySQL, and PostgreSQL – all RDBMS widely used in the enterprise.

Recently, we’ve seen a rise in popularity of NoSQL databases. MongoDB has rapidly gained popularity in the enterprise and the Spring community.

In this post, I’ll discuss how to use MongoDB with a Spring Boot application.

NoSQL and MongoDB

NoSQL storage is a vast domain with a plethora of solutions and patterns. Even the term NoSQL have multiple meanings. Originally, it stood for “Non SQL”, but gradually with the adoption of Polyglot Persistence which Martin Flower beautifully describes here, NoSQL is now commonly referred as “Not Only SQL”.

MongoDB is a leading document-based NoSQL database. MongoDB uses JSON documents to store records. Internally, MongoDB represents JSON documents in binary-encoded format called BSON. One feature worth mentioning about MongoDB is its dynamic schema. You can insert data without a pre-defined schema – a thing not possible with traditional relational databases.

In today’s competitive business environment where Agile practices are embraced, having a dynamic schema gives you a high degree of flexibility. A great place to learn more about MongoDB is here.

For this post, I’m using MongoDB installed locally on my laptop.

You have several options for running MongoDB. Refer to the MongoDB guide for an explanation on how to install and start up a MongoDB instance.

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MongoDB Dependencies

Spring Data for MongoDB is part of the umbrella Spring Data project. With Spring Data for MongoDB, you get a familiar and consistent Spring-based programming model to work with MongoDB while retaining MongoDB store-specific features and capabilities.

To use MongoDB in a Spring Boot project, we need to add the Spring Data MongoDB starter dependency, spring-boot-starter-data-mongodb . The Maven POM is this.



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Notice that we haven’t included Spring Data JPA. The Spring Data MongoDB starter dependency brings in the required infrastructure, the MongoDB driver, and few other dependencies to the project.

MongoDB Dependencies with Spring Boot starter

Data Class

Both Spring Data JPA and Spring Data MongoDB share a common infrastructure. I have already written a post to use Spring Data JPA in a Spring Boot Web application.

Here we need to write a Mongo data class rather than a JPA @Entity. A Mongo data class instance maps to a document stored in a collection.

Note: You can relate a collection of MongoDB to an RDBMS table, and a document to a table row.

Let’s write a User data class.



@Document(collection = "users")
public class User {
    private String id;
    private String name;
    private int age;
    public User() {

    public User(String name, int age) { = name;
        this.age = age;

    public String getId() {
        return id;
    public void setId(String id) { = id;

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    public void setName(String name) { = name;

    public int getAge() {
        return age;
    public void setAge(int age) {
        this.age = age;
    public String toString() {
        return "User{" +
                ", name='" + name + '\'' +
                ", Age=" + age +

We have created User as a plain Java object. The @Document annotation in Line 6 specifies a users collection. This tells Spring Data MongoDB to store a User document to the users collection. This collection will be created if it doesn’t exist. The @Document annotation is optional, and if we don’t use one, the collection will be named with the class name.

All documents in MongoDB have an _id field as the primary key. The id field annotated with @Id in Line 8 maps to the MongoDB document’s _id. It’s not mandatory to use the @Id annotation if the primary key field is named id . However, many developers still use the annotation for readability. Some consider it a best practice to use the Id annotation, even when its not required.

The remaining name and age field will be treated as properties of the MongoDB document.

Mongo Repository

Spring Data Mongo provides Mongo Repository, similar to CRUD Repository of Spring Data JPA. In fact, the MongoRepository interface extends CrudRepository to manage data objects for most common operations, such as saving a document, updating it, deleting it, or finding it by id.

You only need to define the repository interface. Spring Data MongoDB will automatically provide the required implementations.

Here is the Mongo repository:



public interface UserMongoRepository extends MongoRepository {
    User findByName(String name);

That’s all we need to set to use MongoDB with Spring Boot.

Unit Testing

Let’s write some test code for our setup.


import org.junit.After;
import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;

import static org.junit.Assert.*;
public class UserMongoRepositoryTest {
    private UserMongoRepository userMongoRepository;

    public void setUp() throws Exception {
        User user1= new User("Alice", 23);
        User user2= new User("Bob", 38);
        //save product, verify has ID value after save
        assertNull(user2.getId());//null before save;;

    public void testFetchData(){
        /*Test data retrieval*/
        User userA = userMongoRepository.findByName("Bob");
        assertEquals(38, userA.getAge());
        /*Get all products, list should only have two*/
        Iterable users = userMongoRepository.findAll();
        int count = 0;
        for(User p : users){
        assertEquals(count, 2);

    public void testDataUpdate(){
        /*Test update*/
        User userB = userMongoRepository.findByName("Bob");
        User userC= userMongoRepository.findByName("Bob");
        assertEquals(40, userC.getAge());

    public void tearDown() throws Exception {


For the test, I have used JUnit. To learn more about JUnit, refer my series on JUnit Testing.

Here is the result of the JUnit test.
JUnit Test Result for MongoDB

Configuration Properties

If you are wondering about MongoDB configurations for this simple application, we relied on the defaults. Spring Data MongoDB intelligently picks up the defaults, such as localhost for the host, 27017 for the default MongoDB port, and test for the default MongoDB database to connect. For other values or for advance configurations, you can use the or application.yml configuration files.

The MongoDB configurations that Spring Boot supports are as follows: # Authentication database name. # Database name. # Fully qualified name of the FieldNamingStrategy to use. # GridFS database name. # Mongo server host. # Login password of the mongo server. # Mongo server port. # Enable Mongo repositories. # Mongo database URI. When set, host and port are ignored. # Login user of the mongo server.


Spring Boot makes it very easy to get a Spring application talking to a Mongo database. By default, Spring Boot is configured to look for the Mongo database on the local host. When you’re ready to deploy, you just need to override a handful of default properties for your particular MongoDB installation.

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